FINALLY! The long awaited Chemistry exam review is here! Keep in mind guys, this review is 5300 but that’s only because we’ve learned a lot this year. If you guys read through all of this, you’ll find practice problems with solutions and detailed descriptions regarding… Well pretty much everything! So buckle up, and enjoy a chemical induced journey!
Physical & Chemical Changes
|Physical Change||Chemical Change|
Physical vs. Chemical Properties
Physical properties: properties that use our senses or machines to identify a substance.
Chemical properties: properties that describe how a substance reacts with another.
Examples of Physical Properties:
State: Solid, Liquid, Gas
Malleability: how easily you can change the shape of something (eg. Aluminum foil).
Solubility: how much of something can be dissolved in water.
Viscosity: how easily a substance flows. Melting/Boiling Points
NAMING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) came up with naming conventions.
We can divide the compounds into two main types:
1. Those which are true binary compounds (that is, contain only two types of elements).
2. Those which contain more than two types of elements.
I. NAMING OF BINARY COMPOUNDS
The names of all compounds containing only two elements end in IDE. Binary compounds may be subdivided into two types:
1. Those whose first element is a metal
2. Those whose first element is a non-metal
In both cases the second element is a non-metal.
1. For binary compounds whose first element is a metal, we use the following system:
[name of first element (metal)] [stem] + [IDE]
The stem is merely an abbreviation for the name of the second element (the non-metal).
Example: Naming the compound NaCl
The symbol Na represents the metallic element sodium.
The symbol Cl represents the non-metallic element chlorine, whose stem is chlor.
Therefore, the name NaCl is sodium chlor+ide or sodium chloride.
Likewise, for the following compounds:
CaO is calcium oxide CaC2 is calcium carbide
AlN is aluminum nitride K2S is potassium sulfide
Note that hydrogen is considered as a metal when it is written first in a binary compound.