FINALLY!  The long awaited Chemistry exam review is here!  Keep in mind guys, this review is 5300 but that’s only because we’ve learned a lot this year.  If you guys read through all of this, you’ll find practice problems with solutions and detailed descriptions regarding… Well pretty much everything!  So buckle up, and enjoy a chemical induced journey!

Physical & Chemical Changes

Physical Change Chemical Change
Definition
  • No new substance is produced
  • Substance remains the same even with a change of state
  • May require addition of energy
  • Release of energy may occur
  • Final substance is substantially different than initial substance
  • New substance is always produced
  • Energy is usually released but may be required to get the change going
Properties
  • Outside may look different
  • Inside remains the same
  • Particles may be rearranged
  • Forces of attraction between particles may be weaker or stronger
  • A new substance is produced
  • The particles of the new substance do not resemble those of the old substance
  • Internally, the substance produced is different than the old substances
Examples
  • Mixing sugar and water
  • Ice melts into water
  • Solid wax  ==>    Liquid wax
  • Vinegar and baking soda mix to form carbon dioxide
  • Hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium metal to form hydrogen gas

Physical vs. Chemical Properties

Physical properties:       properties that use our senses or machines to identify a substance.

Chemical properties:       properties that describe how a substance reacts with another.

Examples of Physical Properties:

State: Solid, Liquid, Gas

Malleability: how easily you can change the shape of something (eg. Aluminum foil).

Solubility: how much of something can be dissolved in water.

Viscosity: how easily a substance flows. Melting/Boiling Points

NOMENCLATURE:

NAMING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) came up with naming conventions.

We can divide the compounds into two main types:

1. Those which are true binary compounds (that is, contain only two types of elements).

2. Those which contain more than two types of elements.

I. NAMING OF BINARY COMPOUNDS

The names of all compounds containing only two elements end in IDE. Binary compounds may be subdivided into two types:

1. Those whose first element is a metal

2. Those whose first element is a non-metal

In both cases the second element is a non-metal.

1. For binary compounds whose first element is a metal, we use the following system:

[name of first element (metal)] [stem] + [IDE]

The stem is merely an abbreviation for the name of the second element (the non-metal).

Example: Naming the compound NaCl

The symbol Na represents the metallic element sodium.

The symbol Cl represents the non-metallic element chlorine, whose stem is chlor.

Therefore, the name NaCl is sodium chlor+ide or sodium chloride.

Likewise, for the following compounds:

CaO is calcium oxide                  CaC2 is calcium carbide

AlN is aluminum nitride         K2S is potassium sulfide

Note that hydrogen is considered as a metal when it is written first in a binary compound.

Grade 11: Chemistry Notes and Exam Review
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