Everything you will need to know for Grade 9 English

GRAMMAR:

Parts of Speech:

Pronoun: Used in place of a noun.

Noun: Person/place/thing.

Verb: Expresses action/being.

Adverb: Describes verb (how/how much/when/where).

Adjective: Describes noun/pronoun.

Interjection: Expresses strong feeling/surprise.

Conjunction: Joins words.

Preposition: Links object with another part of the sentence.

Syntax:

  • Ordering of words in a sentence
  • Determines meaning

Articles:
The:
Definite Article

A: Indefinite Article

Subject:

Complete Subject: The part of the sentence containing the noun/pronoun.

Bare Subject: The main word in the complete subject.

Predicate:

Complete Predicate: The part of the sentence containing the verb.

Bare Predicate: The verb in the complete predicate.

Types of Sentences:

Simple Sentence:

  • One independent clause
  • Contains subject & predicate
  • Complete thought

Compound Sentence:

  • Two or more independent clauses (joined with coordinating conjunction)
  • Complete thought

Complex Sentence:

  • One independent clause
  • One or more dependent clauses
  • Complete thought

Kinds of Sentences:

Declarative: Simple statement (.).

Interrogative: Question (?).

Imperative: Command (!/.).

Exclamatory: Statement said with rising voice (!).

Sentence Varieties:

Natural Order: Subject is at the beginning of the sentence.

Inverted Order: Subject is at the end of the sentence.

Split Order: Subject is in the middle of the predicate.

Sentence Errors:

Sentence Fragment: A word, group of words, phrase, or subordinate clause that is punctuated as a complete sentence.

Run-On Sentence: Two or more independent clauses are mistakenly joined together without a conjunction or correct punctuation.

Comma Splice Error: Two sentences are separated only by a comma where a period should have gone.

Subject-Verb Agreement:

Subject & verb must agree in number.

Singular Subject = Singular Verb (Add ‘s’)

Plural Subject = Plural Verb

Conjunctions:

Coordinating Conjunctions:

  • and
  • or
  • nor
  • for
  • but
  • so
  • yet

Subordinating Conjunctions:

  • when
  • whenever
  • before
  • after
  • until
  • unless
  • if
  • although
  • because
  • since
  • while

Relative Pronouns:

  • that
  • which
  • who
  • whom
  • where
Grade 9: English
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